R. R. Stotts, M. Namikoshi, W. M. Haschek, K. L. Rinehart, W. W. Carmichael, A. M. Dahlem and V. R. Beasley. Structural modifications imparting reduced toxicity in microcystins from Microcystis spp. Toxicon 31, 783-789, 1993.-A cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) bloom containing Microcystis aeruginosa (dominant), M. viridis, and M. wesenbergii, was collected from Homer Lake (Illinois, U.S.A.) in the summer of 1988 and microcystins were isolated. One microcystin of substantially reduced toxicity was isolated, together with ten hepatotoxic microcystins. The compound with reduced toxicity was nonlethal at 1 mg/kg (i.p. mouse) and was determined to have a (C3H7O2) mono-ester of the α-carboxyl on the Glu unit of microcystin-LR. The other nine microcystins apart from MCLR had approximate ld50s ranging from 97 μg/kg to 750 μg/kg.
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