Hydrogen doped ZnO thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from a ceramic target on c-plane sapphire and fused silica using H 2 and O 2 as reactive gases. Structural analysis revealed that all films are polycrystalline with the c axis oriented perpendicularly to the substrate surface. The lateral grain size was strongly affected by the oxygen content of the sputtering gas and decreased dramatically above a critical content of 4.5%. We were able to adjust the carrier density of the films by the deposition parameters to any value between 1014 and 2×1020 cm -3. Using temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements we identified thermionic emission over Coulomb-barriers created by surface trap states at the grain boundaries and tunneling effects to dominate the carrier transport. Preparing and thoroughly characterizing the films is a prerequisite for our investigation of the dependence of the optical band gap energy on the carrier density. We use results from experiment as well as first-principles calculations (including Burstein-Moss shift, band gap renormalization, and excitonic effects) in order to understand the mechanisms that determine how free electrons influence the energy position of the optical absorption onset.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|State||Published - Sep 28 2012|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics