Stress relaxation properties of bananas during drying

Fidele M. Abedi, Pawan S. Takhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bananas' mechanical properties are affected by the ripening and the drying processes since they induce profound microstructural changes. In this study, first, the interacting effect of the ripening and the drying processes on the mode of viscoelastic behavior of bananas was investigated. Second, the stress relaxation properties of fully ripe bananas were measured as a function of the hot air drying conditions. Finally, the two-element generalized Maxwell model was fitted to the experimental data. Thus, this study clarified the dependence of the mode of rheological behavior on both the ripening stage and the moisture content. It showed that bananas start softening at the onset of the drying when the fruit moisture content is high. The softening is reversed at a critical value, at which the bananas start regaining stiffness with further moisture reduction. The critical moisture content value decreases with ripening from 1.4 g/g solids for green bananas (5–11% Brix percentage) to 1.23 g/g solids for half-ripe bananas (15–20% Brix percentage) and eventually vanishes when the bananas are fully ripe (25–31% Brix percentage). The stress relaxation properties measured with fully ripe bananas substantiated the initial findings on the influence of the ripening stage on the mode of rheological behavior. The relaxation moduli displayed a decreasing trend with decrease in the moisture content for 40, 60, and 80°C drying temperatures and decayed with time as expected for viscoelastic bodies. Lastly, the two-element generalized Maxwell model fitted well to the experimental data with the root mean square error varying between 0.06 × 10−5 and 90.6 × 10−5MPa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-156
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Texture Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Banana
  • drying
  • ripening
  • strain
  • stress
  • stress relaxation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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