Stream community richness predicts apex predator occupancy dynamics in riparian systems

Angela M. Holland, Eric M. Schauber, Clayton K. Nielsen, Eric C. Hellgren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Streams and adjacent riparian habitats represent linked terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that exchange materials and energy. Recognized relationships among apex predators and ecosystem biodiversity led us to hypothesize that these predators in riparian-stream systems were more likely to be found in sites with high stream quality, defined as increased ecosystem function and integrity. In our freshwater study system, river otter Lontra canadensis and mink Neovison vison play critical roles as apex predators. We used multi-season occupancy modelling across three sampling years (2012–2014) to compare aspects of the stream communities that explain occupancy dynamics of river otter and mink, including their interactions with other semi-aquatic mammals. We surveyed for semi-aquatic mammals at 77 sites in 12 major watersheds in southern Illinois, USA (44 526 km2). Naïve occupancy differed among years but generally increased for river otter, and remained high (≥93.5%) for mink. Increasing substrate availability increased detectability of river otter, whereas mink detection varied by survey period. Occupancy of river otter during the initial survey period was higher in sites closer to reintroduction points. Probability of colonization of river otter was positively associated with macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity, fish species richness, and beaver presence. Sites with high species richness of fish families preferred by river otter also had increased river otter persistence. Mink occupied sites with increased fish richness, muskrat presence and mussel community index. Taken together, our results show occupancy of both mink and river otter were predicted by aspects of prey diversity and presence, indicating the importance of community composition in occupancy dynamics of riparian predators. Ultimately, these relationships suggest that habitat heterogeneity and system stability are important to apex predator site use. However, the relative role of bottom–up and top–down forcing in stream systems remains to be resolved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1422-1436
Number of pages15
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • community ecology
  • semi-aquatic mammals
  • trophic interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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