Stiffness evaluation of compacted geo-materials using crosshole-type dynamic cone penetrometer (CDP), rPLT, and LFWD

Jong Sub Lee, Erol Tutumluer, Won Taek Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Evaluation of the strength and stiffness of compacted geo-materials is required to ensure that it has sufficient bearing capacity and stiffness to the acting loads. In this study, a crosshole-type dynamic cone penetrometer (CDP) was applied to investigate the strength and stiffness characteristics of a compacted subgrade. The CDP characterizes the subgrade strength by the penetration index (CDPI) and evaluates the stiffness by the shear wave velocity (Vs) and maximum shear modulus (Gmax). CDP tests were conducted at three testing points. Repetitive plate loading tests (rPLTs) and light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) tests were conducted as standard testing methods for the stiffness estimation of the subgrade. Experimental results show that while the rPLT and LFWD evaluate the equivalent elastic moduli (Ev1, Ev2, and Evd) within the influence zone, the CDP provides the CDPI, Vs, and Gmax along the depth. Linear relationships between the Gmax and the equivalent elastic moduli are constructed. The strain levels corresponding to Ev1, Ev2, and Evd are estimated. This study demonstrates that the CDP is an effective testing method for both strength and stiffness evaluations of the subgrade along the depth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number124015
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
StatePublished - Oct 11 2021


  • Crosshole-type dynamic cone penetrometer
  • Elastic modulus
  • Light falling weight deflectometer
  • Repetitive plate loading test
  • Shear wave velocity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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