Sticklebacks from streams are more bold than sticklebacks from ponds

David Álvarez, Alison M. Bell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Risk-taking behaviour has important consequences for fitness. Here, we show that risk-taking behaviour in sticklebacks consistently varies according to the habitat of origin. We compared the risk-taking behaviour of individual sticklebacks from three pond and three stream populations. Specifically, we measured willingness to forage under predation risk following a simulated attack by a model heron predator. Sticklebacks from stream populations were more willing to forage under predation risk than fish from pond populations. Sticklebacks from streams resumed eating after the simulated attack faster and spent more time eating compared to sticklebacks from ponds. We discuss these findings in terms of differences in life history and predation pressure in the two habitat types.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-217
Number of pages3
JournalBehavioural Processes
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Antipredator behaviour
  • Boldness
  • Costs
  • Gasterosteus aculeatus
  • Risk-taking behaviour

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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