This study was undertaken to determine the distribution and habitat requirements of many of the endangered and threatened plant species associated with the sand deposits of Illinois. Approximately 70 species of endangered and threatened plants are known to grow in these deposits. The habitat fidelity and natural community types were determined for 40 of these species that are restricted to these glacial drift sand habitats. Plant community types, associated species, moisture requirements, and other data concerning each of the plant species were determined by reviewing the pertinent literature, searching the Illinois Department of Natural Resources Natural Heritage Database, through discussions with botanists and natural heritage biologists, examination of herbarium specimens, and our studies of the vegetation of the Illinois sand deposits. Throughout the course of these studies, most of the nature preserves, state parks, and identified natural areas in the sand regions were visited on numerous occasions and vegetation surveys undertaken. The information presented in this paper could allow rare plant conservation in Illinois to become more proactive by encouraging the selection of sites where in situ conservation efforts could be conducted by state, local, and nongovernmental organizations.