Stacked macro fiber piezoelectric composite generator for a spinal fusion implant

Eric J. Tobaben, Nathan C. Goetzinger, John P. Domann, Ronald Barrett-Gonzalez, Paul M. Arnold, Elizabeth A. Friis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A manufacturing method was developed to create a piezoelectric 3-layer stacked, macro fiber composite generator operating in d33 mode to promote bone growth in spinal fusion surgeries. A specimen of 9 x 17 x 9 mm thick was constructed from 800 ìmm diameter PZT fibers and medical grade epoxy. Electromechanical testing was performed at three stages of manufacturing to determine the influence of these processes on power generation. An average peak power of over 335 ìmW was generated in the heat-treated specimen during simulated human body loads. The work provides insights into manufacturing methods for lowered source impedance power generation for a variety of applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number017002
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrical stimulation
  • Fusion
  • Macro fiber composite
  • Piezoelectric
  • Spine
  • Stacked generator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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