Stabilization of vitamin D in pea protein isolate nanoemulsions increases its bioefficacy in rats

Ali M. Almajwal, Mahmoud M.A. Abulmeaty, Hao Feng, Nawaf W. Alruwaili, Astrid Dominguez-Uscanga, Juan E. Andrade, Suhail Razak, Mohamed F. Elsadek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Micronutrient delivery formulations based on nanoemulsions can enhance the absorption of nutrients and bioactives, and thus, are of great potential for food fortification and supplementation strategies. The aim was to evaluate the bioefficacy of vitamin D (VitD) encapsulated in nanoemulsions developed by sonication and pH-shifting of pea protein isolate (PPI) in restoring VitD status in VitD-deficient rats. Weaned male albino rats (n = 35) were fed either normal diet AIN-93G (VitD 1000 IU/kg) (control group; n = 7) or a VitD-deficient diet (<50 IU/kg) for six weeks (VitD-deficient group; n = 28). VitD-deficient rats were divided into four subgroups (n = 7/group). Nano-VitD and Oil-VitD groups received a dose of VitD (81 µg) dispersed in either PPI-nanoemulsions or in canola oil, respectively, every other day for one week. Their control groups, Nano-control and Oil-control, received the respective delivery vehicles without VitD. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)VitD], parathyroid hormone (PTH), Ca, P, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. After one week of treatment, the VitD-deficient rats consuming Nano-VitD recovered from Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) as compared against baseline and had serum 25(OH)VitD higher than the Nano-control. Enhancement in VitD status was followed with expected changes in serum PTH, Ca, P, and ALP levels, as compared against the controls. Stabilization of VitD within PPI-based nanoemulsions enhances its absorption and restores its status and biomarkers of bone resorption in VitD-deficient rats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number75
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2019


  • Bioefficacy
  • Fortification
  • Nanoemulsion
  • Rat
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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