Stability of classical swine fever virus and pseudorabies virus in animal feed ingredients exposed to transpacific shipping conditions

Ana M.M. Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Laura A. Constance, Matthew Olcha, Scott Dee, Diego G. Diel, Maureen A. Sheahan, Raymond R.R. Rowland, Gilbert Patterson, Megan C. Niederwerder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are two of the most significant trade-limiting pathogens affecting swine worldwide. Both viruses are endemic to China where millions of kilograms of feed ingredients are manufactured and subsequently imported into the United States. Although stability and oral transmission of both viruses through contaminated pork products has been demonstrated as a risk factor for transboundary spread, stability in animal feed ingredients had yet to be investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of CSFV and variant PRV in 12 animal feeds and ingredients exposed to environmental conditions simulating a 37-day transpacific shipment. Virus was detected by PCR, virus isolation and nursery pig bioassay. CSFV and PRV nucleic acids were stable throughout the 37-day period in all feed matrices. Infectious CSFV was detected in two ingredients (conventional soybean meal and pork sausage casings) at 37 days post-contamination, whereas infectious PRV was detected in nine ingredients (conventional and organic soybean meal, lysine, choline, vitamin D, moist cat and dog food, dry dog food and pork sausage casings). This study demonstrates the relative stability of CSFV and PRV in different feed ingredients under shipment conditions and provides evidence that feed ingredients may represent important risk factors for the transboundary spread of these viruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1623-1632
Number of pages10
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number4
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • animal feed
  • classical swine fever
  • pseudorabies
  • ships
  • survival
  • swine diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)


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