Spice and herb use with vegetables: Liking, frequency, and self-efficacy among US adults

Cassandra J. Nikolaus, Brenna Ellison, Pamela A. Heinrichs, Sharon M Nickols, Karen Marie Chapman-Novakofski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To inform future initiatives to encourage vegetable intake, we explored how spice and herb (S/H) use with vegetables was related to consumer characteristics. Methods: A questionnaire collected information on S/H liking and use frequency, whether S/Hs were used when cooking vegetables, and belief that consumers could use S/Hs when cooking vegetables. The questionnaire was distributed to members of an online panel of US consumers. Results: Younger respondents (18-29 years) and respondents who identified as Asian/ Pacific Islander or other racial group used 19 of the 20 S/Hs more frequently than their older and white/Caucasian, African-American or Hispanic counterparts, respectively. S/H use when cooking vegetables at home was significantly higher for women. Self-efficacy was higher for women, 18-29 year-olds, and 30-49 year-olds, and lower for respondents who identified as white/Caucasian race and those with annual incomes below $50,000. Conclusions: Low-income, male, older (≥ 50 years), and white/ Caucasian respondents were identified as target audiences that may benefit the most from interventions encouraging S/H use with vegetables to increase consumption. It is critical to account for socio-demographic characteristics of the audience when designing interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-60
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2017


  • Dietary habits
  • Herbs
  • Self-efficacy
  • Spices
  • Vegetables

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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