Sphingolipid organization in the plasma membrane and the mechanisms that influence it

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

Abstract

Sphingolipids are structural components in the plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Their metabolism produces bioactive signaling molecules that modulate fundamental cellular processes. The segregation of sphingolipids into distinct membrane domains is likely essential for cellular function. This review presents the early studies of sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membranes of mammalian cells that shaped the most popular current model of plasma membrane organization. The results of traditional imaging studies of sphingolipid distribution in stimulated and resting cells are described. These data are compared with recent results obtained with advanced imaging techniques, including super-resolution fluorescence detection and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Emphasis is placed on the new insight into the sphingolipid organization within the plasma membrane that has resulted from the direct imaging of stable isotope-labeled lipids in actual cell membranes with high-resolution SIMS. Super-resolution fluorescence techniques have recently revealed the biophysical behaviors of sphingolipids and the unhindered diffusion of cholesterol analogs in the membranes of living cells are ultimately in contrast to the prevailing hypothetical model of plasma membrane organization. High-resolution SIMS studies also conflicted with the prevailing hypothesis, showing sphingolipids are concentrated in micrometer-scale membrane domains, but cholesterol is evenly distributed within the plasma membrane. Reductions in cellular cholesterol decreased the number of sphingolipid domains in the plasma membrane, whereas disruption of the cytoskeleton eliminated them. In addition, hemagglutinin, a transmembrane protein that is thought to be a putative raft marker, did not cluster within sphingolipid-enriched regions in the plasma membrane. Thus, sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membrane is dependent on the cytoskeleton, but not on favorable interactions with cholesterol or hemagglutinin. The alternate views of plasma membrane organization suggested by these findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number154
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Volume4
Issue numberJAN
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 10 2017

Fingerprint

Sphingolipids
Cell Membrane
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
Cholesterol
Hemagglutinins
Cytoskeleton
Fluorescence
Membranes
Eukaryotic Cells
Isotopes

Keywords

  • Imaging
  • Lipid domains
  • Plasma membrane organization
  • SIMS
  • Secondary ion mass spectrometry
  • Sphingolipid distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Sphingolipid organization in the plasma membrane and the mechanisms that influence it. / Kraft, Mary L.

In: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Vol. 4, No. JAN, 154, 10.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

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