Speech technology in the year 2001

Stephen E. Levinson, Frank Fallside

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper introduces the session 'Technology in the Year 2001' and is the first of four papers dealing with the future of human-machine communication by voice. In looking to the future it is important to recognize both the difficulties of technological forecasting and the frailties of the technology as it exists today-frailties that are manifestations of our limited scientific understanding of human cognition. The technology to realize truly advanced applications does not yet exist and cannot be supported by our presently incomplete science of speech. To achieve this long-term goal, the authors advocate a fundamental research program using a cybernetic approach substantially different from more conventional synthetic approaches. In a cybernetic approach, feedback control systems will allow a machine to adapt to a linguistically rich environment using reinforcement learning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10038-10039
Number of pages2
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number22
StatePublished - Oct 24 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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