For a long time, light focusing from microspheres has been intensively researched. The microsphere has been shown to be capable of generating a high intensity beam with subwavelength width, known as a photonic nanojet (PNJ). In this article, we present a detailed report on the properties of a new asymmetrical microstructure, consisting of a supporting stage and a spherical cap, and demonstrate precise engineering of the PNJ characteristics by simply selecting its geometrical dimensions. More importantly, we find that a single asymmetrical microstructure can generate an ultra-elongated PNJ on the shadow side and the cascade of two asymmetrical elements can generate a PNJ with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) waist down to 0.27λ. In addition, because of the presence of energy convergence regions within the second element, an ultra-narrow PNJ can be generated even when the length of the second element in the cascade is many orders of magnitude greater than the wavelength or deviates somewhat from the optimal dimensions. This offers design flexibility and manufacturing tolerance, which has not been demonstrated in the conventional microsphere design or its derivatives. We believe that these remarkable performance features make the asymmetrical structure and its cascade attractive in numerous applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics