Spatial and space-time clustering and demographic characteristics of human nontyphoidal Salmonella infections with major serotypes in Toronto, Canada

Csaba Varga, Patience John, Martin Cooke, Shannon E. Majowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) causes a substantial health burden to human populations in Canada and worldwide. Exposure sources and demographic factors vary by location and can therefore have a major impact on salmonellosis clustering. We evaluated major NTS serotypes: S. Enteritidis (n = 620), S. Typhimurium (n = 150), S. Thompson (n = 138), and S. Heidelberg (n = 136) reported in the city of Toronto, Canada, between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017. Cases were analyzed at the forward sortation area (FSA)—level (an area indicated by the first three characters of the postal code). Serotype-specific global and local clustering of infections were evaluated using the Moran’s I method. Spatial and space-time clusters were investigated using Poisson and multinomial scan statistic models. Case-case analyses using a multinomial logistic regression model was conducted to compare seasonal and demographic factors among the different serotypes. High infection rate FSAs clustered in the central region of Toronto for S. Enteritidis, in the south-central region for S. Typhimurium, in north-west region for S. Thompson, and in the south-east region for S. Heidelberg. The relative risk ratio of S. Enteritidis infections was significantly higher in cases who reported travel outside of Ontario. The relative risk ratio of infections was significantly higher in summer for S. Typhimurium, and in fall for S. Thompson. The relative risk ratio of infection was highest for the 0–9 age group for S. Typhimurium, and the 20–39 age group for S. Heidelberg. Our study will aid public health stakeholders in designing serotype-specific geographically targeted disease prevention programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0235291
JournalPloS one
Volume15
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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