Soy sauce odour induces and enhances saltiness perception

Napapan Chokumnoyporn, Sujinda Sriwattana, Yuthana Phimolsiripol, Damir Dennis Torrico, Witoon Prinyawiwatkul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Developing products with reduced sodium content is one alternative for consumers interested in reducing their daily sodium intake. In this research, we determined whether soy sauce odour could induce and enhance salty taste perception in salt solution models. The sensory threshold technique (ASTM E679-04, the ascending forced choice method of limits) was used to determine thresholds at 25 °C. Group best estimate threshold geometric means of soy sauce odour were expressed as parts-per-billion (ppb, v/v). At 28.45 ppb (recognition threshold), soy sauce odour could induce salty taste in 0.03 mm NaCl solution (in which salty taste was undetectable without soy sauce odour) and at 122.71 ppb (difference threshold), it enhanced salty taste (i.e. saltier) perception in 20 mm NaCl solution. Through the odour-taste interaction concept, this study demonstrated that the soy sauce odour could induce and enhance salty taste perception, which could be applied in the development of reduced-sodium foods. The group best-estimate (GBET) recognition and difference thresholds (ppb) of soy sauce odour. Soy sauce odour could induce and enhance saltiness 0.03 mM and 20 mM NaCl solution (in water), respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2215-2221
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Odour-taste interactions
  • Salt
  • Saltiness enhancement
  • Sodium reduction
  • Soy sauce odour

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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