The application of ultrasound to crystallization (i.e., sonocrystallization) can dramatically affect the properties of the crystalline products. Sonocrystallization induces rapid nucleation that generally yields smaller crystals of a more narrow size distribution compared to quiescent crystallizations. The mechanism by which ultrasound induces nucleation remains unclear although reports show the potential contributions of shockwaves and increases in heterogeneous nucleation. In addition, the fragmentation of molecular crystals during ultrasonic irradiation is an emerging aspect of sonocrystallization and nucleation. Decoupling experiments were performed to confirm that interactions between shockwaves and crystals are the main contributors to crystal breakage. In this review, we build upon previous studies and emphasize the effects of ultrasound on the crystallization of organic molecules. Recent work on the applications of sonocrystallized materials in pharmaceutics and materials science are also discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Environmental Chemistry
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry