Sodium reduction technologies applied to bread products and their impact on sensory properties: a review

Aubrey Dunteman, Ying Yang, Elle McKenzie, Youngsoo Lee, Soo Yeun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chronic overconsumption of sodium has led to its designation as a nutrient of public health concern. While the current adequate intake (AI) of sodium is set at 1.5 g per day, the average daily intake for Americans ages one and up is currently above 3.5 g, leading to an increased risk of health conditions such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Due to the prevalence of daily bread consumption and the moderately high sodium content that accompanies it, bread has become a major contributor to dietary sodium intake. Still people seem to associate foods higher in sodium content, such as processed meats and frozen foods, as the main way to limit sodium consumption, and therefore, overlook the contribution made by regularly consuming bread. This review focuses on recent research detailing methods that are being implemented in attempts to reduce the sodium content of bread products. Included literature examined the perspective of sensory feasibility and on identifying gaps in knowledge surrounding viable strategies for producing reduced-sodium breads. Sodium reduction technologies discussed include methods in the areas of salt removal, physical modification, salt replacement and flavour modification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4396-4407
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Bread
  • consumer perception
  • replacement
  • salt
  • sensory evaluation
  • sodium reduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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