“So, like, it’s all a mix of one”: Intersecting contexts of adolescents’ ethnic-racial socialization

Michael R. Sladek, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Jennifer L. Hardesty, Gladys Aguilar, David Bates, Sara Douglass Bayless, Elisa Gomez, Connie K Hur, Ashley Ison, Shandra Jones, Hua Luo, Megan Satterthwaite-Freiman, Michael A. Vázquez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cultural-ecological theories posit that ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development is shaped by transactions between contexts of ethnic-racial socialization, yet research considering intersections among multiple contexts is limited. In this study, Black, Latino, White, and Asian American adolescents (N = 98; Mage = 16.26, SD = 1.09; 55.1% female identifying) participated in surveys and focus group discussions (2013–2014) to share insights into ERI development in context. Using consensual qualitative research, results indicated: (a) family ethnic-racial socialization intersects with community-based, peer, media, and school socialization; (b) ethnic-racial socialization occurs outside family through intersections between peer, school, community-based, and media settings; and (c) ethnic-racial socialization is embedded within systems of racial oppression across contexts. Discussion includes implications for future research and interventions supporting youth ERI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1284-1303
Number of pages20
JournalChild development
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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