Advances in technology are enabling the deployment of vast sensor networks through the mass production of cheap wireless sensor units with small batteries. Such sensor networks can be used in a variety of application areas - indeed any application where there are signals to be detected. Our focus in this chapter is on applications of sensor networks that involve tracking, e.g., surveillance, wildlife studies, environmental control, and health care. More specifically, due to the use of battery power in these networks we concern ourselves with energy efficiency in tracking applications.
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