Slow dark deactivation of Arabidopsis chloroplast ATP synthase caused by a mutation in a nonplastidic SAC domain protein

Ping Gong, Guosheng Wu, Donald R. Ort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Coupling factor slow recovery (cfs) is a recessive mutant of Arabidopsis with anomalous ATP synthase activation/deactivation characteristics as well as a distinct growth phenotype. The most significant feature of this mutant is that the dark-adapted deactivation of ATP synthase is a very slow relative to the wild type, indicating interference with ATP synthase regulation. Physical mapping of the mutation delimited it to a region in a pair of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. Examination of T-DNA insertion lines of all 34 putative genes located in this region identified two homozygous T-DNA insertion lines of the same gene, At3g59770, possessing phenotypes indistinguishable from the cfs mutant. At3g59770 had been previously identified as suppressor of actin 9 (SAC9), a protein with a SAC domain, a protein-protein interaction module containing two conserved tryptophans known as a WW domain, and an ATP/GTP-binding site motif A. Sequence analysis of cfs revealed a point mutation of G to A resulting in an amino acid substitution from tryptophan to STOP, thereby coding a truncated protein. Real-time-PCR amplification of the gene specific fragments showed that the T-DNA mutants did not have full-length transcripts whereas the cfs mutant transcribed a full-length mutated transcript. Further investigation of SAC9 RNA expression levels in different tissues of wild-type plants by RT-PCR revealed the highest expression in leaves. SAC 9 dysfunction interferes with ATP synthase deactivation, possibly by an alteration in phosphoinositide signaling inducing a stress mimicry response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-142
Number of pages10
JournalPhotosynthesis research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2006


  • ATP synthase
  • SAC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


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