Susceptibility to mastitis is highest during the peripartal (transition) period and is often concomitant with other comorbidities such as ketosis. Although infection with pathogenic microorganisms and immune-dysfunction around calving clearly play key roles in mastitis development, other metabolic factors also contribute. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial deacetylase regulating energy and redox homeostasis, antagonizes the lipotoxic effects of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Thus, we hypothesized that increases in circulating NEFA concentrations, as observed in the transition period, provokes inflammatory responses that can be reversed via activation of SIRT3. Here we aimed to study (1) proinflammatory NF-κB signaling and SIRT3 abundance in mammary tissue of ketotic cows and healthy controls, and (2) the effect of SIRT3 on NF-κB activation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) treated with high levels of NEFA. The mammary gland biopsy samples were from a previous study, which included 15 healthy cows and 15 ketotic cows. Primary BMEC were isolated from 3 healthy Holstein cows with collagenase III digestion. Purified BMEC were incubated with or without SIRT3 overexpression adenovirus for 48 h, then treated with 0, 0.6, 1.2, or 2.4 mM NEFA for 24 h. Mammary tissue of ketotic cows was associated with lower protein abundance of SIRT3 along with greater NF-κB P65 phosphorylation levels (p-NF-κB P65), p-NF-κB P65:NF-κB P65 ratio, and mRNA abundance of IL1B and IL6. In BMEC, exogenous NEFA dose-dependently reduced protein abundance of SIRT3, but increased p-NF-κB P65, p-NF-κB P65:NF-κB P65 ratio, and mRNA abundance of IL1B and IL6. Compared with green fluorescent protein adenovirus vector + NEFA, overexpression of SIRT3 in NEFA-treated BMEC downregulated p-NF-κB P65 and mRNA abundance of IL1B and IL6. Immunofluorescence indicated that overexpression of SIRT3 inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB P65. Overall, our data demonstrated that ketosis is associated with a reduction in SIRT3 abundance and activation of NF-κB signaling in the mammary gland. In vitro data provided evidence that high NEFA concentrations inhibit SIRT3, which contributes to enhanced NF-κB signaling including nuclear translocation and a pro-inflammatory response. The data suggest a promising role of SIRT3 as a target for helping alleviate localized inflammation of the mammary gland resulting from exposure to high concentrations of NEFA.
- bovine mammary epithelial cell
- nonesterified fatty acid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology