Single-mode proton-implanted photonic crystal VCSELs

Paul O. Leisher, Chen Chen, Dominic F. Siriani, Joshua D. Sulkin, Kent D Choquette

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Photonic crystals are etched to a variety of depths in the top mirror of proton-implanted vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes to achieve single-fundamental-mode operation. To investigate both the index confinement provided by the etched pattern and its effect on optical loss, continuous-wave experiments are performed. It is shown that proper pattern design leads to improved fundamental-mode output power, decreased threshold, and increased efficiency relative to unetched, but otherwise identical implant VCSELs. These improvements indicate a significant reduction in diffraction loss to the fundamental mode due to the index guiding provided by the etched pattern. Etching to shallow depths provides the ability to scale to large aperture sizes while etching deeply allows single-mode emission of small diameter devices. The photonic crystal designs are then used in the fabrication of high-speed implant-confined VCSELs with coplanar contacts on polyimide. Optimized devices exhibit a record 15 GHz small-signal modulation bandwidth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XI
StatePublished - 2007
EventVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XI - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 24 2007Jan 25 2007

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XI
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Modulation
  • Photonic crystal
  • Single-mode
  • Transverse modes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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