A model was developed to simultaneously assess Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation during ozonation of synthetic solutions in batch and flow-through reactors. The model incorporated 65 elementary chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of ozone and the oxidation of bromine species and their corresponding rate or equilibrium constants reported in the literature. Ozonation experiments were performed with a laboratory-scale batch reactor to evaluate the model with respect to the rate of ozone decomposition and bromate formation. The model was found to provide a good representation of experimental results when the ozone decomposition initiation reaction with hydroxide ion was assumed to produce superoxide radical instead of the alternatively proposed product hydrogen peroxide. The model was further developed to simulate the performance of a flow-through bubble-diffuser reactor with an external recirculation line. Each compartment of the reactor (bubble column and recirculation line) was assumed to behave as a plug flow reactor as supported by tracer test results, and an empirical correlation was used to represent the rate of ozone gas transfer in the bubble column. Model predictions of the performance of the flow-through ozone bubble-diffuser contactor were in good agreement with experimental results obtained for bromate formation and C. parvumoocyst inactivation under all conditions investigated. Additional model simulations revealed that hydrodynamic conditions had a more pronounced effect on C. parvum oocyst inactivation than on bromate formation. In contrast, pH had a strong effect on bromate formation without affecting the inactivation efficiency of C. parvum oocysts for a given level of exposure to ozone. These findings suggested that bromate formation could be minimized while achieving target inactivation levels for C. parvum oocysts by designing ozone reactors with hydrodynamic conditions approaching that of an ideal plug flow reactor and by lowering the pH of the target water.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry