Simulation-based site amplification model for shallow bedrock sites in Korea

Muhammad Aaqib, Duhee Park, Muhammad Bilal Adeel, Youssef M.A. Hashash, Okan Ilhan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A new simulation-based site amplification model for shallow sites with thickness less than 30 m in Korea is developed. The site amplification model consists of linear and nonlinear components that are developed from one-dimensional linear and nonlinear site response analyses. A suite of measured shear wave velocity profiles is used to develop corresponding randomized profiles. A VS30 scaled linear amplification model and a model dependent on both VS30 and site period are developed. The proposed linear models compare well with the amplification equations developed for the western United States (WUS) at short periods but show a distinct curved bump between 0.1 and 0.5 s that corresponds to the range of site natural periods of shallow sites. The response at periods longer than 0.5 s is demonstrated to be lower than those of the WUS models. The functional form widely used in both WUS and central and eastern North America (CENA), for the nonlinear component of the site amplification model, is employed in this study. The slope of the proposed nonlinear component with respect to the input motion intensity is demonstrated to be higher than those of both the WUS and CENA models, particularly for soft sites with VS30 < 300 m/s and at periods shorter than 0.2 s. The nonlinear component deviates from the models for generic sites even at low ground motion intensities. The comparisons highlight the uniqueness of the amplification characteristics of shallow sites that a generic site amplification model is unable to capture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEarthquake Spectra
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Site amplification
  • linear
  • moderate to low seismicity
  • nonlinear
  • shallow bedrock
  • site response analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geophysics


Dive into the research topics of 'Simulation-based site amplification model for shallow bedrock sites in Korea'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this