Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is an aphid- and seed-transmitted virus that infects soybean (Glycine max) plants and causes significant yield losses. Seed-borne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections. The strain specificity of SMV transmission through seed and SMV-induced seed-coat mottling were investigated in field experiments. Six soybean plant introductions (PIs) were inoculated with eight SMV strains and isolates. Transmission of SMV through seed ranged from 0 to 43%, and isolate-by-soybean line interactions occurred in both transmission rates and percentages of mottled seeds. For example, SMV 746 was transmitted through 43% of seed in PI 229324, but was not transmitted through seed of PIs 68522, 68671, or 86449. In contrast, SMV 413 was transmitted through seed from all PIs. SMVs that were transmitted poorly by the Asian soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, also were transmitted poorly through seed. No predicted amino acid sequences within the helper-component protease or coat protein coding regions differentiated the two groups of SMV strains. The loss of aphid and seed transmissibility by repeated mechanical transmission suggests that constant selection pressure is needed to maintain the regions of the SMV genome controlling the two phenotypes from genetic drift and loss of function.
- Posttranscriptional gene silencing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science