Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains producing heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Holotoxin-structured GM1-binding LT is a strong immunogen and an effective adjuvant, and can serve a carrier or a platform for multivalent vaccine development. However, the significance of peptide domains or epitopes of LT particularly enzymatic LTA subunit in association with LT enterotoxicity and immunogenicity has not been characterized. In this study, we identified B-cell epitopes in silico from LTA subunit and examined epitopes for immunogenicity and association with LT enterotoxicity. Epitopes identified from LTA subunit were individually fused to a modified chicken ovalbumin carrier protein, and each epitope-ovalbumin fusion was used to immunize mice. Data showed all 11 LTA epitopes were immunogenic; epitope 7 (105SPHPYEQEVSA115) induced greater titers of anti-LT antibodies which neutralized LT enterotoxicity more effectively. To examine these epitopes for the significance in LT enterotoxicity, we constructed LT mutants by substituting each of 10 epitopes at the toxic A1 domain of LTA subunit with a foreign epitope and examined LT mutants for enterotoxicity and GM1-binding activity. Data showed that LT mutants exhibited no enterotoxicity but retained GM1-binding activity. The results from this study indicated that while not all immunodominant LTA epitopes were neutralizing, LT mutants with an individual epitope substituted lost enterotoxicity but retained GM1-binding activity. These results provided additional information to understand LT immunogenicity and enterotoxicity and suggested the potential application of LT platform for multivalent vaccines against ETEC diarrhea and other diseases.
- ETEC (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli)
- LT (heat-labile toxin)
- Vaccine platform
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology