|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||The International Encyclopedia of Ethics|
|State||Published - Feb 1 2013|
Shame and the love of honor are emotions that reside uneasily in the ethical life of modern liberal societies. Both sentiments are fundamentally concerned with maintaining a public appearance of power or importance. A person has honor to the extent that he occupies a socially recognized status by which he can expect to be taken seriously by others, either as a potential compatriot or as a competitor. To feel shame is, in its most basic forms, to be painfully aware that this status has been threatened or compromised, if not altogether lost. Such shame involves a sense of the diminishment of our self-worth through the thought that we have been exposed to others as appropriate objects of derision, contempt, or pity (see Self-Respect And Self-Esteem; Worth/Dignity). A disgraced person is no longer someone who can be admired, loved, or feared, but only something to be turned away from and forgotten.
- guilt and innocence