Sequencing of supernumerary chromosomes of red fox and raccoon dog confirms a non-random gene acquisition by B chromosomes

Alexey I. Makunin, Svetlana A. Romanenko, Violetta R. Beklemisheva, Polina L. Perelman, Anna S. Druzhkova, Kristina O. Petrova, Dmitry Yu Prokopov, Ekaterina N. Chernyaeva, Jennifer L. Johnson, Anna V. Kukekova, Fengtang Yang, Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith, Alexander S. Graphodatsky, Vladimir A. Trifonov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


B chromosomes (Bs) represent a variable addition to the main karyotype in some lineages of animals and plants. Bs accumulate through non-Mendelian inheritance and become widespread in populations. Despite the presence of multiple genes, most Bs lack specific phenotypic effects, although their influence on host genome epigenetic status and gene expression are recorded. Previously, using sequencing of isolated Bs of ruminants and rodents, we demonstrated that Bs originate as segmental duplications of specific genomic regions, and subsequently experience pseudogenization and repeat accumulation. Here, we used a similar approach to characterize Bs of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) and the Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides Gray). We confirm the previous findings of the KIT gene on Bs of both species, but demostrate an independent origin of Bs in these species, with two reused regions. Comparison of gene ensembles in Bs of canids, ruminants, and rodents once again indicates enrichment with cell-cycle genes, development-related genes, and genes functioning in the neuron synapse. The presence of B-chromosomal copies of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and tissue differentiation may indicate importance of these genes for B chromosome establishment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number405
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 10 2018


  • Genome instability
  • Karyotype evolution
  • Supernumerary chromosomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Sequencing of supernumerary chromosomes of red fox and raccoon dog confirms a non-random gene acquisition by B chromosomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this