Sensitivity-based line outage angle factors

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


In this paper, we propose a model-based approach to the computation of line outage angle factors (LOAFs), which relies on the use of angle factors (AFs) and power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). A LOAF provides the sensitivity of the voltage angle difference between the terminal buses of a transmission line in the event the line is outaged to the pre-outage active power flow on the line. Large angle differences between the terminal buses of an outaged line can prevent the successful reclosure of the line - such an event was a significant contributing factor to the 2011 San Diego blackout. The proposed model-based LOAFs, along with the AFs and injection shift factors (ISFs), enable the fast computation of the impact on the angle across lines of line outages and active power injections, and provide system operators a systematic mean by which to assess line outage angles and undertake the appropriate dispatch actions necessary to alleviate large phase angle differences. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed LOAFs with a case study carried out on the IEEE 14-bus test system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2015 North American Power Symposium, NAPS 2015
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781467373890
StatePublished - Nov 20 2015
EventNorth American Power Symposium, NAPS 2015 - Charlotte, United States
Duration: Oct 4 2015Oct 6 2015

Publication series

Name2015 North American Power Symposium, NAPS 2015


OtherNorth American Power Symposium, NAPS 2015
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Distribution Factors
  • Operations
  • Reliability
  • SCED
  • Sensitivity Analysis
  • Voltage Angle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering


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