Self-Regulation Across Adolescence: Exploring the Structure of Selection, Optimization, and Compensation

G. John Geldhof, Edmond P. Bowers, Steinunn Gestsdóttir, Christopher M. Napolitano, Richard M. Lerner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Intentional self-regulation (ISR) is thought to undergo significant development during the second decade of life, but our understanding of ISR's development during this period remains incomplete. We discuss the development of ISR as operationalized by Freund & Baltes's (2002) measure of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC). We use data from 5,471 youth that had participated in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development in Grades 5 through 12. Using exploratory factor analyses, our findings suggest that the SOC questionnaire adheres to a stable three-factor structure across adolescence, with factors representing selection, intentional self-regulation, and a reverse-coded method factor. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-228
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Research on Adolescence
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'Self-Regulation Across Adolescence: Exploring the Structure of Selection, Optimization, and Compensation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this