Security via multirate control in cyber–physical systems

Mohammad Naghnaeian, Nabil H. Hirzallah, Petros G. Voulgaris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We consider malicious attacks on actuators and sensors of a feedback system which can be modeled as additive, possibly unbounded, disturbances at the digital (cyber) part of the feedback loop. We precisely characterize the role of the unstable poles and zeros of the system in the ability to detect unbounded stealthy attacks in the context of the sampled data implementation of the controller in feedback with the continuous (physical) plant. We show that, if there is a single sensor that is guaranteed to be secure and the plant is observable from that sensor, then there exists a class of multirate sampled data controllers that ensures that all attacks remain detectable. These dual rate controllers are sampling the output faster than the zero order hold rate that operates on the control input and as such, they can even provide better nominal performance than single rate, at the price of higher sampling of the continuous output.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-18
Number of pages7
JournalSystems and Control Letters
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • Actuator attacks
  • Multirate control
  • Sampled-data control
  • Security
  • Zeros

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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