Seasonal fuel consumption, stoves, and end-uses in rural households of the far-western development region of Nepal

Nicholas L. Lam, Basudev Upadhyay, Shovana Maharjan, Kirstie Jagoe, Cheryl L. Weyant, Ryan Thompson, Sital Uprety, Michael A. Johnson, Tami C. Bond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Understanding how fuels and stoves are used to meet a diversity of household needs is an important step in addressing the factors leading to continued reliance on polluting devices, and thereby improving household energy programs. In Nepal and many other countries dependent on solid fuel, efforts to mitigate the impacts of residential solid fuel use have emphasized cooking while focusing less on other solid fuel dependent end-uses. We employed a four-season fuel assessment in a cohort of 110 households residing in two elevation regions of the Far-Western Development Region (Province 7) of Nepal. Household interviews and direct fuel weights were used to assess seasonality in fuel consumption and its association with stoves that met cooking and non-cooking needs. Per-capita fuel consumption in winter was twice that of other measured seasons, on average. This winter increase was attributed to greater prevalence of use and fuel consumption by supplemental stoves, not the main cooking stove. End-use profiles showed that fuel was used in supplemental stoves to meet the majority of non-meal needs in the home, notably water heating and preparation of animal food. This emphasis on fuels, stoves, and the satisfaction of energy needs - rather than just stoves or fuels - leads to a better understanding of the factors leading to device and fuel choice within households.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number125011
JournalEnvironmental Research Letters
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 14 2017


  • adoption
  • biomass
  • cookstoves
  • energy services
  • energy systems
  • residential energy
  • stacking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Environmental Science
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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