Schema complexity and valence elicited by country logos for tourism

Ma Lulu Alcasabas Rodriguez, Suman Lee, Sela Sar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the influence of tourism logo design on people’s cognitive responses. In an online survey, undergraduate students were exposed to the tourism logos of Australia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Kenya, Latvia and Malawi. The results showed that the logos of Australia and Indonesia elicited high schema complexity and positive valence among college students. The logos of Kenya and Mongolia rated high in schema complexity, but produced a negative valence. Malawi and Latvia elicited low schema complexity, but a positive valence. The findings suggest that effective meaning creation can overcome deficiencies in logo design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-200
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Visual Literacy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2 2016


  • Schema
  • country logos
  • schema complexity
  • tourism
  • valence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Communication
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts


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