Scalable 360° Video Stream Delivery: Challenges, Solutions, and Opportunities

Michael Zink, Ramesh Sitaraman, Klara Nahrstedt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In recent years, virtual reality and augmented reality applications have seen a significant increase in popularity. This is due to multiple technology trends. First, the availability of new tethered and wireless head-mounted displays allows viewers to consume new types of content. Second, 360° omnidirectional cameras, in combination with production software, make it easier to produce personalized 360° videos. Third, beyond these new developments for creating and consuming such content, video sharing websites and social media platforms enable users to publish and view 360° video content. In this paper, we present challenges of 360° video streaming systems, give an overview of existing approaches for 360° video streaming, and outline research opportunities enabled by 360° video. We focus on the data model for 360° video and the different challenges and approaches of creating, distributing, and presenting 360° video content, including 360° video recording, storage, distribution, edge delivery, and quality-of-experience evaluation. In addition, we identify major research opportunities with respect to efficient storage, timely distribution, and cybersickness-free personalized viewing of 360° videos.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8643410
Pages (from-to)639-650
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • 360° videos
  • content delivery
  • virtual reality (VR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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