Satisfaction of what? Post hoc versus real-time construct validity

William P. Stewart, R. Bruce Hull Iv

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Post hoc satisfaction (PHS) and real-time satisfaction (RTS) are alternative ways to operationalize recreation satisfaction. PHS is an appraisal of a recreationist's current image of the recreation experience assessed after the on-site activity has occurred. RTS is an appraisal of a recreationist's current state. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between these two constructs and their empirical operations. Satisfaction was assessed at 12 times during a day hike (RTS), on-site immediately after the hike (PHS-O), at home 3 months after the hike (PHS-3), and at home 9 months after the hike (PHS-9). Results indicate that PHS-0 and the summary indicators of the RTS assessments were significantly related (R2 = .31, p < .01). The relation between PHS-3 and RTS exhibited a reduced fit (R2 = .18, p < .01) and a still weaker fit between PHS-9 and RTS (R2 = .04, p < .10). In addition, PHS-0 was significantly greater than both PHS-3 and PHS-9. The analysis and discussion suggest that differential reliance on introspection, differential emphasis on recall of past experiences, and differential ability to control the effects of context warrant two distinct constructs of satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-209
Number of pages15
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • Construct validity
  • Quality appraisal
  • Recreation experience
  • Satisfaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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