Purpose Simultaneously recorded electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) is highly informative yet technically challenging. Until recently, there has been little information about EEG data quality and safety when used with newer multiband (MB) fMRI sequences. Here, we measure the relative heating of a MB protocol compared with a standard single-band (SB) protocol considered to be safe. We also evaluated EEG quality recorded concurrently with the MB protocol on humans. Materials and methods We compared radiofrequency (RF)-related heating at multiple electrodes and magnetic field magnitude, B1+RMS, of a MB fMRI sequence with whole-brain coverage (TR = 440 ms, MB factor = 4) against a previously recommended, safe SB sequence using a phantom outfitted with a 64-channel EEG cap. Next, 9 human subjects underwent eyes-closed resting state EEG-fMRI using the MB sequence. Additionally, in three of the subjects resting state EEG was recorded also during the SB sequence and in an fMRI-free condition to directly compare EEG data quality across scanning conditions. EEG data quality was assessed by the ability to remove gradient and cardioballistic artifacts along with a clean spectrogram. Results The heating induced by the MB sequence was lower than that of the SB sequence by a factor of 0.73 ± 0.38. This is consistent with an expected heating ratio of 0.64, calculated from the square of the ratio of B1+RMS values of the sequences. In the resting state EEG data, gradient and cardioballistic artifacts were successfully removed using traditional template subtraction. All subjects showed an individual alpha peak in the spectrogram with a posterior topography characteristic of eyes-closed EEG. The success of artifact rejection for the MB sequence was comparable to that in traditional SB sequences.
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