Rural Latino health and the built environment: a systematic review

Garrett A. Stone, Mariela Fernandez, Alondra DeSantiago

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: This study systematically reviewed literature examining the influence of the rural built environment on Latinos’ health outcomes and behaviour in the United States. A secondary aim of the study was to identify strategies developed to address challenges in the rural built environment affecting Latinos’ health. Design: This study followed the reporting guidelines set forth by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Articles included in the final analysis clearly linked Latino health outcomes to characteristics of the rural built environment. Results: Of the nearly 2,500 articles identified in the initial search, the final review included approximately 146 full-text sources. The majority of the articles focused on aspects of Latinos’ physical (n = 68), behavioural (n = 43), and mental health (n = 23). Conclusions: Rural Latino neighbourhoods in the United States possess limited access to health care, internet, transportation, and recreation infrastructure, which negatively impacts health outcomes and behaviours. Strategies developed to mitigate these issues include but are not limited to: the use of telecommunications to distribute health information; the use of community health workers and mobile clinics to increase awareness and availability of select health services; the use of worksite trainings and adaptations to the workplace; and the promotion of safety net programmes, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Programme for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). This review supports the need for a more robust research agenda documenting the health experiences of rural Latinos of various nationalities, age groups, and genders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalEthnicity and Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • built environment
  • Latino
  • Rural
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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