Ruminal epithelial cell proliferation and short-chain fatty acid transporters in vitro are associated with abundance of period circadian regulator 2 (PER2)

Jian Gao, Qiaoyun Xu, Mengzhi Wang, Jialiang Ouyang, Wen Tian, Dan Feng, Yusheng Liang, Beibei Jiang, Juan J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The major circadian clock gene PER2 is closely related to cell proliferation and lipid metabolism in various nonruminant cell types. Objectives of the study were to evaluate circadian clock-related mRNA abundance in cultured goat ruminal epithelial cells (REC), and to determine effects of PER2 on cell proliferation and mRNA abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporters, genes associated with lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Ruminal epithelial cells were isolated from weaned Boer goats (n = 3; 2 mo old; ∼10 kg of body weight) by serial trypsin digestion and cultured at 37°C for 24 h. Abundance of CLOCK and PER2 proteins in cells was determined by immunofluorescence. The role of PER2 was assessed through the use of a knockout model with short interfering RNA, and sodium butyrate (15 mM) was used to assess the effect of upregulating PER2. Both CLOCK and PER2 were expressed in REC in vitro. Sodium butyrate stimulation increased mRNA and protein abundance of PER2 and PER3. Furthermore, PER2 gene silencing enhanced cell proliferation and reduced cellular apoptosis in isolated REC. In contrast, PER2 overexpression in response to sodium butyrate led to lower cellular proliferation and ratio of cells in the S phase along with greater ratio of cells in the G2/M phase. Those responses were accompanied by downregulated mRNA abundance of CCND1, CCNB1, CDK1, and CDK2. Among the SCFA transporters, PER2 silencing upregulated mRNA abundance of MCT1 and MCT4. However, it downregulated mRNA abundance of PPARA and PPARG. Overexpression of PER2 resulted in lower mRNA abundance of MCT1 and MCT4, and greater PPARA abundance. Overall, data suggest that CLOCK and PER2 might play a role in the control of cell proliferation, SCFA, and lipid metabolism. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate potential mechanistic relationships between circadian clock and SCFA absorption in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12091-12103
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume103
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • cell cycle
  • circadian clock
  • nutrition
  • rumen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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