Routing-aware Legal Hybrid Bonding Terminal Assignment for 3D Face-to-Face Stacked ICs

Siting Liu, Jiaxi Jiang, Zhuolun He, Ziyi Wang, Yibo Lin, Bei Yu, Martin Wong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Face-to-face (F2F) stacked 3D IC is a promising alternative for scaling beyond Moore's Law. In F2F 3D ICs, dies are connected through bonding terminals whose positions can significantly impact routing performance. Further, there exists resource competition among all the 3D nets due to the constrained bonding terminal number. In advanced technology nodes, such 3D integration may also introduce legality challenges of bonding terminals, as the metal pitches can be much smaller than the sizes of bonding terminals. Previous works attempt to insert bonding terminals automatically using existing 2D commercial P&R tools and then consider inter-die connection legality, but they fail to take the legality and routing performance into account simultaneously. In this paper, we explore the formulation of the generalized assignment in the hybrid bonding terminal assignment problem. Our framework, BTAssign, offers a strict legality guarantee and an iterative solution. The experiments are conducted on 18 open-source designs with various 3D net densities and the most advanced bonding scale. The results reveal that BTAssign can achieve improvements in routed wirelength under all testing conditions from 1.0% to 5.0% with a tolerable runtime overhead.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationISPD 2024 - Proceedings of the 2024 International Symposium on Physical Design
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9798400704178
StatePublished - Mar 12 2024
Externally publishedYes
Event33rd International Symposium on Physical Design, ISPD 2024 - Taipei, Taiwan, Province of China
Duration: Mar 12 2024Mar 15 2024

Publication series

NameProceedings of the International Symposium on Physical Design


Conference33rd International Symposium on Physical Design, ISPD 2024
Country/TerritoryTaiwan, Province of China


  • 3d ics
  • bonding terminal planning
  • divide and conquer
  • generalized assignment problem
  • routing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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