Roosting birds kill pine trees but no toxic effect to soil under roost

A. R. Gilmore, G. Z. Gertner, G. L. Rolfe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Large numbers of blackbirds roosted in a shortleaf—loblolly pine plantation resulting in almost complete mortality of the trees. Results showed that soil Ca and pH were higher before the birds roosted in the plantation whereas P and K were higher after the birds had roosted. Nitrogen and Mg did not follow a trend. There were changes in the soil nutrient and pH levels that was attributed to bird excrement but it was concluded that no permanent damage to the soil chemical composition was caused by the roosting birds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)599-605
Number of pages7
JournalCommunications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 1984


  • Changes in soil nutrients and pH
  • roosting birds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science


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