Role of cytokinin in enhanced productivity of maize supplied with NH4+ and NO3

K. D. Smiciklas, F. E. Below

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Supplying both N forms (NH4++NO3) to the maize (Zea mays L.) plant can optimize productivity by enhancing reproductive development. However, the physiological factors responsible for this enhancement have not been elucidated, and may include the supply of cytokinin, a growth-regulating substance. Therefore, field and gravel hydroponic studies were conducted to examine the effect of N form (NH4++NO3 versus predominantly NO3) and exogenous cytokinin treatment (six foliar applications of 22 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) during vegetative growth versus untreated) on productivity and yield of maize. For untreated plants, NH4++NO3 nutrition increased grain yield by 11% and whole shoot N content by 6% compared with predominantly NO3. Cytokinin application to NO3-grown field plants increased grain yield to that of NH4++NO3-grown plants, which was the result of enhanced dry matter partitioning to the grain and decreased kernel abortion. Likewise, hydroponically grown maize supplied with NH4++NO3 doubled anthesis earshoot weight, and enhanced the partitioning of dry matter to the shoot. NH4++NO3 nutrition also increased earshoot N content by 200%, and whole shoot N accumulation by 25%. During vegetative growth, NH4++NO3 plants had higher concentrations of endogenous cytokinins zeatin and zeatin riboside in root tips than NO3-grown plants. Based on these data, we suggest that the enhanced earshoot and grain production of plants supplied with NH4++NO3 may be partly associated with an increased endogenous cytokinin supply.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-313
Number of pages7
JournalPlant and Soil: An International Journal on Plant-Soil Relationships
Volume142
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1992

Fingerprint

cytokinins
maize
productivity
corn
shoot
zeatin
dry matter partitioning
vegetative growth
shoots
dry matter
nutrition
partitioning
grain yield
abortion (plants)
hydroponics
foliar application
root tips
gravel
benzyladenine
Zea mays

Keywords

  • cytokinin
  • field
  • greenhouse
  • maize
  • nitrogen form

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Role of cytokinin in enhanced productivity of maize supplied with NH4+ and NO3. / Smiciklas, K. D.; Below, F. E.

In: Plant and Soil: An International Journal on Plant-Soil Relationships, Vol. 142, No. 2, 05.1992, p. 307-313.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Supplying both N forms (NH4++NO3−) to the maize (Zea mays L.) plant can optimize productivity by enhancing reproductive development. However, the physiological factors responsible for this enhancement have not been elucidated, and may include the supply of cytokinin, a growth-regulating substance. Therefore, field and gravel hydroponic studies were conducted to examine the effect of N form (NH4++NO3− versus predominantly NO3−) and exogenous cytokinin treatment (six foliar applications of 22 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) during vegetative growth versus untreated) on productivity and yield of maize. For untreated plants, NH4++NO3− nutrition increased grain yield by 11{\%} and whole shoot N content by 6{\%} compared with predominantly NO3−. Cytokinin application to NO3−-grown field plants increased grain yield to that of NH4++NO3−-grown plants, which was the result of enhanced dry matter partitioning to the grain and decreased kernel abortion. Likewise, hydroponically grown maize supplied with NH4++NO3− doubled anthesis earshoot weight, and enhanced the partitioning of dry matter to the shoot. NH4++NO3− nutrition also increased earshoot N content by 200{\%}, and whole shoot N accumulation by 25{\%}. During vegetative growth, NH4++NO3− plants had higher concentrations of endogenous cytokinins zeatin and zeatin riboside in root tips than NO3−-grown plants. Based on these data, we suggest that the enhanced earshoot and grain production of plants supplied with NH4++NO3− may be partly associated with an increased endogenous cytokinin supply.",
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