Role of cysteine proteinase inhibitors in preference of japanese beetles (popillia japonica) for soybean (glycine max) leaves of different ages and grown under elevated CO2

Jorge A. Zavala, Clare L. Casteel, Paul D. Nabity, May R. Berenbaum, Evan H. Delucia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Elevated levels of CO2, equivalent to those projected to occur under global climate change scenarios, increase the susceptibility of soybean foliage to herbivores by down-regulating the expression of genes related to the defense hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene; these in turn decrease the gene expression and activity of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CystPIs), the principal antiherbivore defenses in foliage. To examine the effects of elevated CO2 on the preference of Japanese beetle (JB; Popillia japonica) for leaves of different ages within the plant, soybeans were grown at the SoyFACE facility at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. When given a choice, JB consistently inflicted greater levels of damage on older leaves than on younger leaves, and there was a trend for a greater preference for young leaves grown under elevated CO2 compared to those grown under ambient CO2. More heavily damaged older leaves and those grown under elevated CO2 had reduced CystPI activity, and JB that consumed leaves with lower CystPI activity had correspondingly greater gut proteinase activity. Younger leaves with higher CystPI activity and photosynthetic rates may contribute disproportionately to plant fitness and are more protected against herbivore attack than older foliage. Cysteine proteinase inhibitors are potent defenses against JB, and the effectiveness of this defense is modulated by growth under elevated CO2 as well as leaf position.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-41
Number of pages7
JournalOecologia
Volume161
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2009

Fingerprint

Popillia japonica
cysteine proteinase inhibitors
soybean
Glycine max
inhibitor
beetle
soybeans
leaves
foliage
herbivore
antiherbivore defense
herbivores
ethylene
gene expression
hormone
global climate
fitness
jasmonic acid
damage
climate change

Keywords

  • Free-air CO enrichment
  • Global change
  • Optimal defense theory
  • Plant defenses
  • Plant-insect interactions
  • Within-plant movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Role of cysteine proteinase inhibitors in preference of japanese beetles (popillia japonica) for soybean (glycine max) leaves of different ages and grown under elevated CO2. / Zavala, Jorge A.; Casteel, Clare L.; Nabity, Paul D.; Berenbaum, May R.; Delucia, Evan H.

In: Oecologia, Vol. 161, No. 1, 01.08.2009, p. 35-41.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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