Robust nonlinear feedback-feedforward control of a coupled kinetic Monte Carlo-finite difference simulation

Effendi Rusli, Timothy O. Drews, David L. Ma, Richard C. Alkire, Richard D. Braatz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Robust nonlinear feedforward-feedback controllers are designed for a multiscale system that dynamically couples kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) and finite difference (FD) simulation codes. The coupled codes simulate the copper electrodeposition process for manufacturing on-chip copper interconnects in electronic devices. The control objective is to regulate the current density subject to the condition that the steady-state fluctuation of the overpotential remains bounded within ±0.01 V. The controller designs incorporate a low-order stochastic model that captures the input-output behavior of the coupled KMC-FD code. The controllers achieve the objectives and the closed-loop responses implemented on the low-order model and the coupled KMC-FD code match well within stochastic variations. The nonlinear feedforward control reduces the rise time of the controller response while the feedback control ensures robustness in the presence of model uncertainty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-417
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Process Control
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2006


  • Finite differences
  • Gain-scheduled control
  • Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation
  • Markov processes
  • Noncontinuum models
  • Nonlinear control
  • Stochastic control
  • Stochastic simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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