Robotic mirror therapy for stroke rehabilitation through virtual activities of daily living

Harris Nisar, Srikar Annamraju, Shankar A. Deka, Anne Horowitz, Dušan M. Stipanović

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mirror therapy is a standard technique of rehabilitation for recovering motor and vision abilities of stroke patients, especially in the case of asymmetric limb function. To enhance traditional mirror therapy, robotic mirror therapy (RMT) has been proposed over the past decade, allowing for assisted bimanual coordination of paretic (affected) and contralateral (healthy) limbs. However, state-of-the-art RMT platforms predominantly target mirrored motions of trajectories, largely limited to 2-D motions. In this paper, an RMT platform is proposed, which can facilitate the patient to practice virtual activities of daily living (ADL) and thus enhance their independence. Two similar (but mirrored) 3D virtual environments are created in which the patients operate robots with both their limbs to complete ADL (such as writing and eating) with the assistance of the therapist. The recovery level of the patient is continuously assessed by monitoring their ability to track assigned trajectories. The patient's robots are programmed to assist the patient in following these trajectories based on this recovery level. In this paper, the framework to dynamically monitor recovery level and accordingly provide assistance is developed along with the nonlinear controller design to ensure position tracking, force control, and stability. Proof-of-concept studies are conducted with both 3D trajectory tracking and ADL. The results demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system to enhance the recovery of the patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-135
Number of pages10
JournalComputational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
StatePublished - Dec 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Force feedback
  • Mirror therapy
  • Nonlinear control
  • Patient recovery
  • Rehabilitation
  • Robotic assistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Biophysics
  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Biotechnology
  • Computer Science Applications


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