Review of methods for real-time loss minimization in induction machines

Ali M. Bazzi, Philip T. Krein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This paper reviews and compares available techniques for minimizing power loss of induction motors. It identifies a separate category of loss minimization techniques (LMTs)hybrid LMTs. Techniques have different convergence rates, parameter dependence, and convergence errors. Offline techniques are introduced and real-time techniques are detailed. Real-time LMTs are divided into model-based, physics-based, and hybrid categories. Application of a real-time LMT to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is examined. Simulation and experimental results verify the characteristics of each category of real-time LMTs. Sensitivity of real-time LMTs to motor parameters is discussed. It is shown that techniques can be chosen based on application-specific requirements and that hybrid LMTs balance partial parameter independence and fast convergence to achieve the best overall performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5565477
Pages (from-to)2319-2328
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2010


  • Control-based optimization
  • induction motor losses
  • loss minimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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