Review of heat transfer enhancement techniques in two-phase flows for highly efficient and sustainable cooling

Mohamed H. Mousa, Cheng Min Yang, Kashif Nawaz, Nenad Miljkovic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Two-phase internal flow is ubiquitous to many systems due to its ability to transfer large amounts of heat effectively. Recent advances motivated by sustainability have pushed towards augmenting the heat transfer between the tube and the two-phase working fluid. Augmenting heat transfer in two-phase flows enables process intensification, and compactness leading to reduced cost and material consumption. This review investigates the effect of heat transfer enhancement techniques on different fluids including R134a, R407C, R22, etc … The techniques are categorized into passive and active and focus on durable enhancement methods which do not include surface structuring or coating. Passive techniques utilize geometrical and surface modifications to induce better mixing. Several passive techniques are analyzed including fins, inserts, and more. In analyzing these techniques, the effect of changing geometric parameters is studied, and the limitations are highlighted. Further, active techniques that enable heat transfer enhancement through applying power are also investigated. Electrohydrodynamic approaches are analyzed and compared to passive techniques. Additionally, the implications of heat exchange enhancement in the context of global energy are discussed. An energy analysis discretized by the use sector is conducted, with an emphasis on predicting the future potential for renewable and sustainable development. Moreover, although active approaches provide the highest heat transfer enhancement, due to implementation difficulties, passive techniques are more frequently adopted. The review ends with discussion of next-generation heat exchangers which will rely more on additive manufacturing due to its flexibility and reduced cost per part as the technology matures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111896
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Active
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Augmentation
  • Boiling
  • Condensation
  • Friction factor
  • Nusselt number
  • Passive
  • Pressure drop
  • Swirl flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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