Nepal, a Himalayan country, is situated on the southern slopes of the central Himalayas and represents about one-third of its whole length. Nepal has a population of around 26.5 million and a large proportion of this rely upon land-based activities for their livelihoods. Its elevation ranges 60–8848 masl which constitutes 10 major ecoregions providing diverse ecosystem services crucial for its inhabitants as well as downstream populations. At the ecosystem level, changes in structure, function, patterns of disturbance, and potential impacts of climate change on species are notable concerns. Earth Observation (EO) technologies are being applied for the monitoring and assessment of Nepal on various scales. Since recently, EO supported assessments are also being linked to decision-making processes. In this chapter, we review the status of EO based assessment of key ecosystem components, including forests, rangelands, agro-ecosystems, and wetlands in Nepal. The chapter also looks at the current information gaps and potential use of upcoming satellite technology developments in the context of Nepal.