Reversible Conversion Reactions and Small First Cycle Irreversible Capacity Loss in Metal Sulfide-Based Electrodes Enabled by Solid Electrolytes

Sanghyeon Kim, Jaewon Choi, Seong Min Bak, Lingzi Sang, Qun Li, Arghya Patra, Paul V. Braun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Solid-state batteries can potentially enable new classes of electrode materials which are unstable against liquid electrolytes. Here, SnS nanocrystals, synthesized by a wet chemical method, are used to fabricate a Li-ion electrode, and the electrochemical properties of this electrode are examined in both solid and liquid electrolyte designs. The SnS-based solid-state cell delivers a capacity of 629 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles and exhibits an unprecedentedly small irreversible capacity in the first cycle (8.2%), while the SnS-based liquid cell shows a rapid capacity decay and large first cycle irreversible capacity (44.6%). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments show significant solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in the liquid cell during the first discharge while SEI formation by electrolyte reduction in the solid-state cell appears negligible. Along with CV, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy are used to investigate the differences between the solid-state and liquid cells. The reaction chemistry of SnS in solid-state cells is also studied in detail by ex situ X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The overarching findings are that use of a solid electrolyte suppresses materials degradation and electrolyte reduction which leads to a small first cycle irreversible capacity and stable cycling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1901719
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume29
Issue number27
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 4 2019

Keywords

  • all solid-state batteries
  • irreversible capacities
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • metal sulfides
  • reversible conversion reactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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