Resonance Raman spectroscopic identification of a histidine ligand of b595 and the nature of the ligation of chlorin d in the fully reduced Escherichia coli cytochrome bd oxidase

Jie Sun, Michael A. Kahlow, Tamma M. Kaysser, Jeffrey P. Osborne, John J. Hill, Ronald J. Rohlfs, Russ Hille, Robert B. Gennis, Thomas M. Loehr

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Cytochrome bd oxidase is a bacterial terminal oxidase that contains three cofactors: a low-spin heme (b558), a high-spin heme (b595), and a chlorin d. The center of dioxygen reduction has been proposed to be a binuclear b595/d site, whereas b558 is mainly involved in transferring electrons from ubiquinol to the oxidase. Information on the nature of the axial ligands of the three heme centers has come from site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopy, which have implicated a His/Met coordination for b558 (Spinner, F., Cheesman, M. R., Thomson, A. J., Kaysser, T., Gennis, R. B., Peng, Q., & Peterson, J. (1995) Biochem. J. 308, 641-644; Kaysser, T. M., Ghaim, J. B., Georgiou, C., & Gennis, R. B. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 13491-13501), but the ligands to b595 and d are not known with certainty. In this work, the three heme chromophores of the fully reduced cytochrome bd oxidase are studied individually by selective enhancement of their resonance Raman (rR) spectra at particular excitation wavelengths. The rR spectrum obtained with 413.1-nm excitation is dominated by the bands of the 5cHS b5952+ cofactor. Excitation close to 560 nm yields a rR spectrum dominated by the 6cLS b5582+ heme. Wavelengths between these values enhance contributions from both b5952+ and b5582+ chromophores. The rR bands of the ferrous chlorin become the major features with red laser excitation (595-650 nm). The rR data indicate that d2+ is a 5cHS system whose axial ligand is either a weakly coordinating protein donor or a water molecule. In the low-frequency region of the 441.6-nm spectrum, we assign a rR band at 225 cm-1 to the (b595)FeII-N(His) stretching vibration, based on its 1.2-cm-1 upshift in the 54Fe-labeled enzyme. This observation provides the first physical evidence that the proximal ligand of b595 is a histidine. Site-directed mutagenesis had suggested that His 19 is associated with either b595 or d (Fang, H., Lin, R.-J., & Gennis, R. B. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 8026-8032). On the basis of the present study, we propose that the proximal ligand of b595 is His 19. We have also studied the reaction of cyanide with the fully reduced cytochrome bd oxidase. In ∼700-fold excess cyanide (∼35 mM), the 629-nm UV/vis band of d2+ is blue-shifted to 625 nm and diminished in intensity. However, the rR spectra at each of three different λ0 (413.1, 514.5, and 647.1 nm) are identical with or without cyanide, thus indicating that both b595 and d remain as 5cHS species in the presence of CN-. This observation leads to the proposal that a native ligand of ferrous chlorin d is replaced by CN- to form the 5cHS d2+ cyano adduct. These findings corroborate our companion study of the "as-isolated" enzyme in which we proposed a 5cHS d3+ cyano adduct (Sun, J., Osborne, J. P., Kahlow, M. A., Kaysser, T. M., Hill, J. J., Gennis, R. B., & Loehr, T. M. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 12144-12151). To further characterize the unusual and unexpected nature of these proposed high-spin cyanide adducts, we have obtained EPR spectral evidence that binding of cyanide to fully oxidized cytochrome bd oxidase perturbs a spin-state equilibrium in the chlorin d3+ to yield entirely the high-spin form of the cofactor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2403-2412
Number of pages10
Issue number7
StatePublished - Feb 20 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry


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